From Wildsong Wiki
PostGIS spatially enables the PostgreSQL open source DBMS
Page updated: 30 Jan 2012 -- topology
Goal: Build an enterprise geodatabase server
1. I am trying to build a GIS data warehouse with a catalog that can be queried in many different ways.
2. I want to have a rich suite of spatial tools available to operate on the data in the warehouse.
Places that I have it running now include:
At home, Bellman, a little AMD 350 M-1 based server running Debian 6.
At work, a spiffy Intel i7/RAID 5 box running Debian 6.
For Geo-CEG, a Supermicro based Xeon box with SSD + SAS + SATA drives running CentOS 6
On the Internet, a virtual machine at Tektonic.net called a VPS (Virtual Private Server) HuPI.org
On the road, Stellar, a MacBook Pro with 8GB of RAM
It turns out the Tektonic servers do not have enough RAM to do this job. Mostly due to trying to run Geoserver and Tomcat.
Operating system: Ubuntu Server 10.04 and Debian 6 I am installing for both PostGIS 1.5 (so I can use pgMap and PostGIS 2.0 (so I can use rasters)
NOTE NOTE When upgrading from 9.0 you have to dump and reload, because the data formats are not compatible.
(See also my PostgreSQL page.)
PostgreSQL 9.1.6 (on older Linux systems; using pre-built binary on Mac and apt-get on Ubuntu 12.04)
On the Mac, I installed PostgreSQL 9.1 from the DMG package and used the Stack Builder to install PostGIS 1.5 and Apache. This was really easy!
apt-get install postgresql-client libpq-dev pgadminIII
I am not building on CentOS in the interests of being more production oriented. See the PostgreSQL page. Here is how I used to do it though.
./configure --prefix=/opt/postgresql/9.1.6 --with-python # let's build all the extensions # let's whip through this by using 10 CPU cores! Get it over with! make -j 10 world sudo make install
# service postgresql-9 restart
PGDATA is set in the script /etc/profile.d/postgres.sh
Pre 12.04 Linux
On my Debian and (older) Ubuntu servers, I ended up building PostgreSQL from source because available binaries of 9.0 don't have the development headers so PostGIS can't be built! Someone (THX1138) suggested I try:
sudo apt-get install postgresql-server-dev-9.0
but I have already moved on to building 9.1.2 so I am not going to try right now.
sudo apt-get install python-dev libreadline-dev
cd ~/src/GIS wget http://ftp.postgresql.org/pub/source/v9.1.6/postgresql-9.1.6.tar.bz2 tar xjf postgresql-*bz2 cd postgresql-9.1.? ./configure --with-python make sudo make install
This installs into /usr/local, so the scripts have to be adjusted accordingly.
I create a script in /etc/profile.d/postgresql.sh to set PATH etc. like this
# Localization for PostgreSQL and PostGIS ----- ###############################################################3 # POSTGRESQL PGHOME=/usr/local/pgsql export PGBIN=$PGHOME/bin export PGLIB=$PGHOME/lib export PGDATA=/var/lib/postgresql/data export PGPORT=5432 # I wonder what this does. Same as mv -i option maybe. export PGOPTS="-i" PATH=$PATH:$PGBIN export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$PGLIB ###############################################################3 # POSTGIS ## export PATH
Once you have installed and sourced the above script then you should be able to run the following commands without having to specify the location for pg_config.
Proj 4.7.0 (currently in Debian 6) GDAL 1.10.0 (built from SVN) GEOS 3.3.7 Might need source for openjpeg and kml
sudo apt-get install libproj-dev proj-bin
wget proj tar gz ./configure make && sudo make install
(When building for a desktpop I skip the php references)
GEOS (installed into /usr/local):
sudo apt-get install swig python-dev php5-dev phpunit wget http://download.osgeo.org/geos/geos-3.3.8.tar.bz2 tar xjvf geos-3.3.?.tar.bz2 cd geos-3.3.? ./configure --enable-python --enable-php make sudo make install
sudo yum -y install sqlite-devel wget http://www.gaia-gis.it/gaia-sins/freexl-1.0.0d.tar.gz tar xzvf freexl-1.0.0d.tar.gz cd freexl-1.0.0d ./configure make -j 10 && sudo make install cd .. wget http://www.gaia-gis.it/gaia-sins/libspatialite-4.0.0.tar.gz tar xzvf libspatialite-4.0.0.tar.gz cd libspatialite-4.0.0 ./configure make -j 10 && sudo make install
sudo apt-get install libspatialite-dev
I always seem to end up wanting features not yet released (ESRI FGDB in this case.) So install the subversion source code to track the latest.
Get GDAL sources
sudo apt-get install subversion cd ~/src/GIS svn checkout https://svn.osgeo.org/gdal/trunk/gdal gdal
After the initial checkout, later on to update just do
cd ~/src/GIS/gdal svn update
GDAL (installed into /usr/local): "poppler" packages are included for PDF support.
sudo apt-get install openjpeg-tools libopenjpeg-dev sudo apt-get install libpoppler-dev sudo apt-get install expat libexpat1-dev libkml-dev libxerces-c-dev sudo apt-get install libcurl4-openssl-dev
svn checkout http://libkml.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/ libkml-read-only cd libkml-read-only ./autogen.sh ./configure make -j 10 && sudo make install wget http://apache.claz.org//xerces/c/3/sources/xerces-c-3.1.1.tar.gz ./configure for poppler yum install fontconfig-devel
ESRI FGDB support: I am adding ESRI file geodatabase (version 10 only) support. Download kit from http://resources.arcgis.com/content/geodatabases/10.0/file-gdb-download and unpack it
cd ~/src/GIS tar xzvf FileGDB_API_1_2-64.tar.gz cd FileGDB_API sudo cp lib/*.so /usr/local/lib sudo ldconfig -v
mkdir MDB cd MDB wget http://apache.deathculture.net//commons/lang/binaries/commons-lang3-3.1-bin.tar.gz wget http://apache.cs.utah.edu//commons/logging/binaries/commons-logging-1.1.1-bin.tar.gz wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/jackcess/jackcess/1.2.9/jackcess-1.2.9.jar?r=http%3A%2F%2Fsourceforge.net%2Fprojects%2Fjackcess%2Ffiles%2F&ts=1355080366&use_mirror=superb-dca3 tar xzvf commons-lang3-3.1-bin.tar.gz tar xzvf commons-logging-1.1.1-bin.tar.gz sudo cp commons-logging-1.1.1/commons-logging-1.1.1.jar commons-lang3-3.1/commons-lang3-3.1.jar jackcess-1.2.9.jar /opt/oracle/jdk1.7.0_09/jre/lib/ext/
Do the configure and build. This version (03 Jan) is not building KML support. Don't know why right now.
cd ~/src/GIS/gdal ./configure \ --with-python --with-poppler \ --with-pg=/usr/pgsql-9.2/bin/pg_config \ --with-curl \ --with-openjpeg --with-geos --with-geotiff \ --with-jpeg --with-png \ --with-expat --with-libkml --with-xerces-c \ --with-mrsid=/var/home/AGI/bwilson/src/GIS/MrSID/Raster_DSDK \ --with-java=/opt/oracle/jdk1.7.0_09 --with-mdb \ --with-fgdb=/var/home/AGI/bwilson/src/GIS/FileGDB_API \ --with-spatialite
Note the MrSID and ESRI lines require a complete path for some reason. Probably my fault somehow, I think a relative path should be good enough.
make sudo make install
Confirm that the version you just built is really the one found. (There might be an older version for example in /usr/bin! Surprise!!)
Confirm the formats you need are listed with these commands
gdalinfo --formats ogrinfo --formats
ogrinfo --formats | grep GDB -> "FileGDB" (read/write)
Confirm you can load it from Python, too.
$ python Python 2.6.6 (r266:84292, Sep 11 2012, 08:34:23) [GCC 4.4.6 20120305 (Red Hat 4.4.6-4)] on linux2 Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> import osgeo.gdal >>> print osgeo.gdal.__version__ 1.10dev >>>
Installing the prerequisites
Don't do this: sudo apt-get build-dep postgis
Ordinarily it is handy to do something like this to pick up all the build dependencies, but this downloads and installs too much!
It picks up binaries that we want to build from source which is bad because we want to get the most up-to-date versions. Then you have to wrestle with having 2 versions of various things (some in /usr and some in /usr/local) and it's too much work.
Instead I install the supporting package individually. I have already installed PostgreSQL and GEOS at this point so all I needed to do at this stage was this:
sudo apt-get install libxml2-dev
My (Debian/Ubuntu) systems already had JSON support but you might need it
sudo apt-get install libjson0-dev
sudo yum install libxml2-devel wget https://github.com/downloads/json-c/json-c/json-c-0.10.tar.gz tar xzvf json-c-0.10.tar.gz cd json-c-0.10 make -j 10 && sudo make install sudo cp json_object_iterator.h /usr/local/include/json/ sudo ldconfig
Building from source -- not really enterprise production ready! But I do it anyway to get features and performance.
(either) Direct checkout to get the very latest including topology and raster
svn checkout http://svn.osgeo.org/postgis/trunk postgis-svn cd postgis-svn sh autogen.sh
(or) Tarball download to get almost the latest
wget http://www.postgis.org/download/postgis-2.0.0SVN.tar.gz tar xzvf postgis-2.0.0SVN.tar.gz cd postgis-2.0.0SVN
Building on CentOS
sudo yum install postgresql92-devel ./configure \ --with-pgconfig=/usr/pgsql-9.2/bin/pg_config \ --with-geosconfig=/usr/local/bin/geos-config \ --with-jsondir=/usr/local \ --with-topology --with-raster \ --with-gdalconfig=/usr/local/bin/gdal-config
Building on Debian
./configure \ --with-pgconfig=/usr/local/pgsql/bin/pg_config \ --with-geosconfig=/usr/local/bin/geos-config \ --with-jsondir=/usr \ --with-topology --with-raster
make -j 10 && sudo make install
Building on Mac seemed promising but I failed. Using binary packages there for now.
Tuning for PostGIS
From a SOTM Mapnik doc.
- shared_buffers 32MB -> 768MB
- work_mem 1MB -> 512MB
- maintenance_work_mem 16 -> 512MB
- fsync on -> off
You have to create the databases etc for Postgres. See the INSTALL file in the sources for more information. Here is how I do it.
Create a user to own the postgres files
su adduser postgres
Create a data storage area (what's the Postgres term for that? Umm... a cluster? I forget.) This assumes you set PGDATA correctly for your system.
mkdir $PGDATA chown postgres $PGDATA
Create the initial database tables
su - postgres initdb -D $PGDATA exit
You probably want to edit the $PGDATA/pg_hba.conf and postgresql.conf files. I add lines to allow my computers to connect in pg_hba.conf and I tell the server to listen for network connections in postgresql.conf
Start the server. There is a sample startup script for Redhat/Centos in the source tree
sudo cp contrib/start-scripts/linux /etc/init.d/postgresql-9 sudo service postgresql-9 start
Create a generic database to test postgres.
createdb -U postgres test psql -U postgres test \d \q
If it works you can drop it.
dropdb -U postgres test
Create another user and password
From command line... if you want to use database authentication
psql -U postgres CREATE USER bwilson WITH PASSWORD 'jackalope';
To see the user table
SELECT * FROM pg_authid;
Install PostGIS Template
Old way: Adding a template makes it much easier to create Postgis databases. New way:
createdb -U postgres my_gisdb psql -U postgres my_gisdb # CREATE EXTENSION postgis; CREATE EXTENSION
Et voila! You should be able to do this now:
# SELECT postgis_full_version();
and if you installed PostGIS 2.1, you will see this result
POSTGIS="2.1.0beta3dev r11470" GEOS="3.3.8-CAPI-1.7.8" PROJ="Rel. 4.8.0, 6 March 2012" GDAL="GDAL 1.10.0, released 2013/04/13" LIBXML="2.7.6" LIBJSON="UNKNOWN" RASTER
Loading data into PostGIS
Just a bit here so you can do some initial tests.
I have more extensive notes on loading data here: Loading data into PostGIS
With shp2pgsql command
Convert city polygon shapefile into SQL commands
shp2pgsql /export/kilchis/temp/Ann/IncidentView/Data/WA/South_King_Fire/AGI_shapefiles/Cities_revised.shp cities > cities.sql
Load the data now by executing the SQL
psql -U postgres -d WA_South_King < cities.sql
With gdal ogr2ogr command, I can reproject while loading:
ogr2ogr -f "PostgreSQL" -t_srs 2991 OR_Corvallis Water.shp
Did the load work? Try a simple query.
psql -U postgres -d WA_South_King SELECT name FROM cities; name ------------------ Shoreline Lake Forest Park Kenmore Bothell ...
The glory! Now try a geometric query
SELECT name, AREA(the_geom) FROM cities ORDER BY AREA(the_geom); name | area ------------------+------------------ Beaux Arts | 2308400.44773863 RUSTON | 7069686.79758783 Hunts Point | 8537598.97906794 Skykomish | 9349760.74397126 ...
Setting the SRID (Spatial reference ID)
First I look at the shapefiles to see what the PRJ portion says. Then I look up the SRID in the Proj file /usr/share/proj/esri
Cities is WA North = 102348 and Counties is WA South = 102349
Rivers is Oregon State Lambert (Feet) = 2992
NAD_1983_HARN_StatePlane_Oregon_North_FIPS_3601_Feet_Intl = EPSG:2913 (See http://www.ittvis.com/services/Files/envi_pe/envi_pe_v10/EnviPEReferenceDocs/EnviPEProjcsStrings_v10.txt)
New short way
UpdateGeometrySRID([<schema_name>], <table_name>, <column_name>, <srid>)
psql -d crbc_spatial crbc_spatial=> SELECT UpdateGeometrySRID('rivers', 'the_geom', 2992); crbc_spatial=>
Long old way
ALTER TABLE cities DROP CONSTRAINT "enforce_srid_the_geom" RESTRICT; UPDATE cities SET the_geom=ST_SetSRID(the_geom, 102348); ALTER TABLE cities ADD CONSTRAINT "enforce_srid_the_geom" CHECK(SRID(the_geom)=102348); UPDATE geometry_columns set SRID=102348 WHERE f_table_name='cities';
ALTER TABLE WA_Counties DROP CONSTRAINT "enforce_srid_the_geom" RESTRICT; UPDATE wa_counties SET the_geom=ST_SetSRID(the_geom, 102349); ALTER TABLE wa_counties ADD CONSTRAINT "enforce_srid_the_geom" CHECK(SRID(the_geom)=102349); UPDATE geometry_columns set SRID=102349 WHERE f_table_name='wa_counties';
I have also added counties, WA_Counties table. So I can see what cities fall inside King county. The problem is that these tables are now in different projections, so the query fails.
SELECT cities.name, WA_Counties.county_nm FROM cities INNER JOIN WA_Counties ON (cities.the_geom && WA_Counties.the_geom AND intersects(cities.the_geom, WA_Counties.the_geom)); ERROR: Operation on two geometries with different SRIDs
I cannot use the transform() function though because my SPATIAL_REF_SYS table is not loaded with the ESRI values! Que mal!
Use this GDAL util to convert the ESRI codes to Proj.4 codes
cd src/FWTools-2.0.6 export PYTHONPATH=`pwd`/pymod export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`/lib cd share ../bin/epsg_tr.py -postgis -list esri_extra.wkt > ~/esri.sql
Load them into the database.
su postgres psql -U postgres -d WA_South_King < /home/AGI/bwilson/esri.sql
Now transform() should work.
CREATE TABLE "wa_counties_p" (gid serial PRIMARY KEY, "county_cod" int2,"county_fip" varchar(3),"county_nm" varchar(15), "ecy_region" varchar(4),"air_region" varchar(46)); SELECT AddGeometryColumn(,'wa_counties_s','the_geom','-1','MULTIPOLYGON',2); ALTER TABLE wa_counties_p DROP CONSTRAINT "enforce_srid_the_geom" RESTRICT; INSERT INTO wa_counties_p SELECT gid,county_cod, county_fip, county_nm, ecy_region, air_region, transform(the_geom, 102348) FROM wa_counties; ALTER TABLE wa_counties_p ADD CONSTRAINT "enforce_srid_the_geom"CHECK(SRID(the_geom)=102348);
Exporting data from PostGIS
Integration with ArcGIS Desktop
I have moved this to its own page as I learn more about it. ArcGIS + PostGIS is an awesome (and affordable) combination.
Integration with a Web server
You can read data directly from PostGIS or you can try using an intermediary. This allows more flexibility. For example you can keep raw spatial data in PostGIS, and create layers in GeoServer complete with styles aka symbologies, and then build up a web map from your own and other services using OpenLayers.
Postgis wiki http://trac.osgeo.org/postgis/wiki/UsersWikiMain
An article of interest
From some forum or other
- 23-Mar-09 20:06
I suppose I could share a few things that I have found out through trial and error. I am certainly no expert.
I am running on windows server 2003 32 bit, so if you are running 64 bit or *nix versions, the experiences could be very different.
1. Make sure you have the latest version of postgres / postGIS. In another thread you mentioned that you have only just installed it, so I would think that this is the case. Version Postgres 8.3 has a nice easy windows installer that makes it a piece of cake to install. The application Stack Builder picks up the latest postGIS version, so there is no need to worry too much about installing postGIS seperately.
2. I found that installing the Tuning wizard that can be found in the Application Stack Builder helps to configure the memory setting quite well. For my purposes, I didn't need to tweak any of the memory setting into the postgresql.conf file.
3. If you are planning on doing spatial queries on any datasets that you export to postgres, then make sure you have spatial indexes on the geometry field. When you export from manifold using the Postgres type, then these indexes are created automatically. I would suggest reading the postgis user manual, it is pretty comprehensive, and fairly easy to follow. It will give you a good idea of what is possible with spatial queries. It is available http://postgis.refractions.net/download/postgis-1.3.5.pdf
4. The postGIS email list is very helpful. See http://postgis.refractions.net/mailman/listinfo/postgis-users to join.
5. If you are doing joins between tables in the database, then you will have to manually set up the indexes. If you are using pgAdmin III (which I like), then before you run queries, you can see if your indexes are being used by using explain.
--sql (for use within postgresql (or in the database manager console in manifold)
explain select * from test limit 1000;
This will tell you what type of scan is being done. In the above case it is always going to be a sequential scan, due to the nature of the query. If you are doing a query like:
select * from "PARCEL_MAPPING" INNER JOIN "100K index" ON st_intersects("PARCEL_MAPPING".geometry, "100K index".geometry)
where "100K index"."Sheet_Name" = 'DANYO'
There is an explain button in the query editor in pgAdmin III which shows this in a graphic form so you can see pretty quickly if you aren't taking advantage of your indexes.
6. Also as mentioned above, it is a good idea to do vaccuum analyzes often as these help indexes perform better.
7. If you are using large drawings that have lots of drawing objects, then make use of the AOI windowing when linking the drawings. Also see http://forum.manifold.net/forum/t64537.18 for a handy tool to help out.
8. Change the extents() aggregate function in postgres. Manifold uses this when linking drawings (for which reason I don't know). It is VERY slow on large datasets. If you use the tool mentioned above, you don't need the extents function at all. All I did was rename the function so I could still use it if I had to in code and postGIS, but Manifold wasn't automatically trying to use it.
--sql (in postgres)
DROP AGGREGATE extent(geometry);
CREATE AGGREGATE _extent(geometry) (
That is about all I can think of for the moment, but I am sure others have more tips.
Hope this helps